Political Masculinities in Literature and Culture: from Early Modernism to Today
The field of masculinity studies has found its way into many academic disciplines. The social sciences as well as medical and psychological research have investigated many phenomena around the issue of masculinity. Moreover, there is a consensus that masculinity as the unmarked gender has remained invisible in many contexts. This, it has been argued, is particularly true for public spheres such as politics. Thus, it is not surprising that there is an increasing body of research in political science and related disciplines such as diplomatic history, exploring the interdependence of the construction of masculinities on the one hand and the emerging, maintenance, and modification of concepts such as citizenship, nationality, democracy, militarism, policing, and colonialism on the other. As a result, masculinity is being made visible in the domain of politicsMoreover, the mechanisms and functions of different types of masculinities in variable political contexts, past and present, are being examined with a special focus on the transformation of masculinities.
Political science has contributed to the understanding of the emergence, the development and the transformation of modern politics and states as masculine areas. Empirical research identified different representations of political masculinities with respect to time, space and state form. Cultural and literary research focuses on the representation of political masculinities in artefacts and texts.
This conference intends to integrate these findings from different disciplines in order to shed light on different modes of representing and construction political masculinities across time and space. Leading questions will be: What are main characteristics of representing political masculinities (i.e. rationality, aggressiveness)? How can we trace the transformation of masculinities across time and space? The focus of all proposed papers should be in political bodies (individuals as political players). All academic disciplines are welcome.
Political Masculinities: Structures, Discourses and Spaces in Historical Perspective
The field of masculinity studies has found its way into many academic disciplines. The social sciences as well as medical and psychological research have investigated many phenomena around the issue of masculinity. Moreover, there is a consensus that masculinity as the unmarked gender has remained invisible in many contexts. This, it has been argued, is particularly true for the sphere of politics. Thus, it is not surprising that there is an increasing body of research in the social sciences, especially in political science, exploring the interdependence of the construction of masculinities on the one hand and the emerging, maintenance, and modification of concepts such as state and citizenship, nationality, democracy, militarism, policing, and colonialism on the other. As a result, masculinity as structuring politics and political institutions is being made visible. Likewise, political masculinities need to be deconstructed in order to identify and focus on the processes of “engendering” political spaces, institutions and norms. In addition, analysis of the mechanisms and functions of different types of masculinities in variable political and historical contexts, drawing attention to the transformation of masculinist structures and spaces, is required. Finally, for the purposes of this conference, the concept of political masculinity has been widened to include and concentrate on structures of domination at the intersection of gender, sexuality and ethnicity.
Political Masculinities and Social Transition
We are currently located at a point in history in which we can observe a tremendous number of societies undergoing rapid changes. Such changes influence gender orders within these societies that, in turn, determine their political and social orders. We want to examine the transitions in political masculinities brought about by such refashioned social structures and social systems, which are unfolding locally, at national level and worldwide.
We define “political masculinity” as including any kind of overt “political player” such as representatives/institutions of the state (police, military, intelligence, parliament, monarchies), the state itself, politicians, political parties, trade unions, lobbyists, NGOs, insurgents, political journalism, activists, voters, etc. However, we also emphasise less overt, or “hidden”, political masculinities such as global businessmen, as well as political structures and their relation to masculinity.
With regard to “transitional societies”, cases in point include, for example, European post-communist states, post-apartheid South Africa, countries of the “Arab Spring”, and nations with rapidly growing economic power such as Brazil, China and India. Further examples include cultures, which due to processes of globalisation and digitation of communication have experienced far-reaching social, political and economic changes, including (civil) war, revolution, economic collapse, new nation-building, forms of religious fundamentalism and grassroots protest movements such as “Occupy”. This includes the challenges posed by these processes to the relative stability of Western liberal democracies.
Rather than thinking about these key moments in history as single points of rupture, which produce “crises”, these may be examined as transitions that impact upon existing gender orders and political masculinities. That is to say, change is not seen to emerge from a single point of “crisis” in which we explore the “predicament” and its implications, but may alternatively be viewed as a process that is embedded in a broader socio-political milieu.
The main issue that we want to address, besides examining the characteristics of political masculinities in different transitional societies, is whether there is a certain trajectory in the characteristics of political masculinities during social transition that can be identified across cultures and times. Specific questions emerge:
! In what ways are “old” and “new” concepts of political masculinities and their location within the overall gender order negotiated and which “old” characteristics are retained or replaced within transition?
! Are there social mechanisms that accelerate or slow down the transition of political masculinities and whose interests do they serve?
! How stable are political masculinities in transition and can changes brought about by transition be reversed once the transitional conditions cease to exist?
! To what extent may processes of transition result in an individual “political masculinity identity” that is complex and contradictory, or arguably even psychically divided and multilayered?
! Further points of discussion are welcome.
Political Masculinities as Agents of Change
The conference aims to encourage and develop diverse understanding concerning political masculinities as agents of change. We hope to showcase the best work in the area occurring internationally as well as to stimulate debate within and between disciplines. We welcome the submission of empirical and theoretical papers from across the full spectrum of gender studies as well as those which critically engage and reflect upon research paradigms and methods. This may include, but is not limited to, work in the arts, humanities, social sciences and sciences. We would particularly welcome papers that seek to address ‘real world’ issues, and in so doing, encourage and contribute toward broader individual and social change.
We define the concept of ‘political masculinities’ broadly. This can relate to any potential actor in the political sphere, including for example, individuals such as activists, insurgents, politicians, political journalists and voters; groups such as political parties, lobbyists, thinktanks, trade unions, and other non-governmental organisations (NGOs); and the State, its institutions as well as representatives. We also emphasise ‘hidden’ political masculinities, such as those associated with global businessmen, as well as political processes and structures and their relation to masculinities.
We likewise define the notion of ‘agents of change’ broadly. This is taken to refer to any actors or actions that serve to challenge normative masculinities – dominant and taken for granted ideals of what it is to be a man – which sustain unequal relations of power between women and men as well as between men themselves. In doing so, such challenge ushers in possibilities for change.
We are therefore interested in exploring where, when, how and why political masculinities can and have served as agents of change at, and across, different levels of analysis. This may include, but is not limited to, the individual; interpersonal; situational; contextual; discursive; representational and/or ideological. In this respect we hope to receive proposals from a diverse range of academic disciplines and practitioners.
Rosemary Lobban, Anglia Ruskin University
Russell Luyt, Anglia Ruskin University
Sam Martin, Anglia Ruskin University
Daragh McDermott, Anglia Ruskin University
Kathleen Starck, University of Koblenz-Landau
For further details see www.anglia.ac.uk/masculinities.
Karen Hagemann (University of North Carolina)
Forging Men: Masculinities, Politics and War in a Transatlantic Perspective, 1750-1850
Eva Kreisky (University of Vienna, Austria)
Masculinity as an Analytical Category. Work in Progress.
K.A. Cuordileone (The City University of New York, USA)
Conservatism, Anti-Intellectualism and the Politics of Masculinity in Postwar America
Political Masculinities and the Nineteenth Century
Jutta Schwarzkopf (Bielefeld University, Germany): Rational and Respectable Beings: The Chartist Conception oft he Male Citizen
Josephine Hoegaerts (Leuwen University, Belgium): La Voix du Pays. Masculinity, Vocal Authority and the Disembodied Citizen in the Nineteenth Century
Antje Bednarek (Theologische Hochschule Friedensau, Germany): Work Hard, Play Hard: Disraelian One-Nation Conservatism and Young Conservatives Today
Militarised and Colonial Political Masculinities
Dagmar Ellerbrock (Bielefeld University, Germany): Gun-Rights as Priviledges of Free Men – Chronology of a Powerful Political Myth of the 19th and 20th Century
Anders Ahlbäck (Abo Akademi University, Finland): Ethnicity, Military Service and Male Civic in / exclusion in Finland, 1918-1928
Sutanuka Banerjee (University of Malaga, Spain): Problems of the Body: Politicization of Masculinity in the Indian Colonial Sphere
Saskia Stachowitsch (Bristol University, UK): (De)Constructing the 'Hypermasculine' Private Military Contractor - Critiques of Masculinity and the Legitimization of the Private Security Industry
Political Masculinities in Film
Sabrina Hüttner (Würzburg University, Germany): Land of Milk and Cohn: A Critique of Heteronormativity and the Ideals of U.S. Political Masculinity
Jan Kucharzewski (University of Hamburg, Germany): Don’t Say Penis in my House – Marking the Male Political Body in the Movies of Oliver Stone
Wieland Schwanebeck (Dresden University, Germany): 'He's a Lover, not a Fighter!' Performing Political Masculinities in The Thick of It
Contemporary Political Masculinities: Case Studies
Rainer Emig (Hannover University, Germany): Political Masculinities Then and Now: Bully Gordon and Miss Westerwelle
Martin Meyrath (Vienna University, Austria): The Public Representation of Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg as an Example of Neoliberal Hegemonic Masculinity
Political Masculinities in the Press
Jiri Nieminen (University of Tampere, Finland): Male Politicians and the Split of Hegemonic Masculinity in Tabloid Publicity
Laura Saarenmaa (University of Tampere, Finland): Politics and Politicians in 1970s Finnish Men’s (Sex) Magazines
Political Masculinities in Literature
Dominik Wallerius (Mainz University, Germany): Joyce, Parnell and the Contradictions of Irish Hegemonic Masculinity
Michael Rodegang Drescher (University of Heidelberg, Germany): The Black Revolutionary – The Representation of Afro-American Male Dissenters in William Wells Brown’s Clotel
Marion Löffler (Vienna University, Austria): The Ideal of a Masculinist State in Thomas Mann’s Novella Mario and the Magician
Michael Kimmel (SUNY)
ANGRY WHITE MEN: The Mobilization of Masculinity on the Extreme Right in Europe and
the United States
James Messerschmidt (University of Southern Maine)
Global Hegemonic and Dominating Masculinities: Lessons from George W. Bush and Barack Obama
Ulrike Brunotte (University of Maastricht)
Masculinities between anti-Semitism and Islamophobia.
European identity politics and (post)colonial Discourse, past and present
Masculinities, Citizenship, Civil Society and Democracy
Doron Avraham (Ramat Gan): The Violent and Masculine Nature of Civil Society: The Case of Nineteenth-Century German Liberalism
Cenk Özbay (Istanbul): Insurgent Masculinity in Istanbul Riots
Philippe Greif (München): Between Marginalization and Rebellion.
Youth Riots, Violence and Masculinity in France
Masculinities and Intersections
Paul Scheibelhofer (Wien): Muscular Islamophobia in Austria and beyond: Masculinism and contemporary anti-Muslim politics
Iris van Huis, Marleen van der Haar (Nijmegen): Marginalized Men’s Intersectionalities: Studying the Construction of (In)equalities and Citizenship in Male Emancipation Projects in the Netherlands
Masculinities in the Political Field
Wieland Schwanebeck (Dresden): “Three Communists Walk into a Bar”: Negotiating Masculinities in Political Jokes
Valerio Coladonato (Rome): Marco Bellocchio’s “Vincere” (2009) and the Media Coverage of Berlusconi’s Sex Scandals: Masculinity and Power Abuse in Contemporary Italian Politics
Milica Antic Gaber/Irena Selisnik (Ljubljana): Transformations of Political Masculinities n Slovenia
Patricia Lee Sykes (Washington): Political Masculinities in Space and Time: How the Gendered Nature of Anglo Institutions, Ideology, and Development Affects Female Executives
Saskia Stachowitsch (Wien): Neoliberal Security Regimes and the Reconstruction of International Politics as a Masculine Space
Stefanie Wöhl (Wien): Gender in International Political Economy: A State-theoretical Approach to Varieties of Capitalism in Crisis
Masculinities and Politics – Literary Representations
Marion Löffler (Wien): Traces of Democratic Politics in Joseph Roth’s Novel “The Spider’s Web”
Carolin Schmitt (Frankfurt): “What kind of man are you?” – Representations of manhood, law and order in John Ford’s “The man who shot Liberty Valance”
Wolfgang Funk (Hannover): Bush and Blair on Stage – Performances of Male Politicians in 21st-century British Theater
Masculinities, Military and War
Anders Ahlbäck (Turku): Begone all Prussianism! Army loathing, democratization and male citizenship in the Nordic countries, ca 1890-1940
Dorit Geva (Budapest): Silenced, Embodied, and Dependent: The Citizen Soldier and Men’s Citizenship in Third Republic France
Ruth Streicher (Berlin): Counterinsurgency as a Gentlemanly Form of Warfare
Berfin Emre Cetin (Ankara): Paramilitary Masculinities in Turkey: A Cultural Perspective
Simona Sahroni (SUNY)
Transforming Violent Masculinities on Battlefield and Home Fronts
Henri Myrttinnen (International Alert, London)
Updating Patriarchy? – Four Sketches of ‘New’ Political Masculinities
Dube, Siphiwe Ignatius (University of Pretoria, South Africa): VIOLENCE AND THE “CRISIS” OF BLACK MASCULINITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
Magdalena Zawisza; Russell Luyt; Anna Maria Zawadzka (Anglia Ruskin University, UK): AMBIVALENT ATTITUDES TO MEN AND SOCIETIES IN TRANSITION: A COMPARISON BETWEEN POLISH, SOUTH AFRICAN AND BRITISH SAMPLES
Neoliberalism & Post-Socialism
Keiko Kaizuma (Iwate University, Japan): PHALLIC RECONSTRUCTION OF JAPANESE HOMOSOCIAL: THE RISE OF COLONIAL FLEXIBLE MASCULINITY IN NEOLIBERAL ECONOMY AND FORCE STRUCTURE
Marina Petras (University of Zagreb, Croatia): STRUCTURATION OF POLITICAL MASCULINITIES: FEW EXAMPLES FROM POST-TRANSITIONAL CROATIA
Ruth Ben Hadar (Charles University, Czech Republic): SIZE MATTERS: SMALL NATIONS AND IMAGES OF MASCULINITY - THE CASE OF CZECH CINEMA
Parliament, Party Politics & Public Discourse
Jiri Nieminen (University of Tampere, Finland): MALE POLITICIANS’ AFFECTS AND PERFORMATIVITIES OF MASCULINITIES AND FEMININITIES DURING FINNISH PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION CAMPAIGN IN 2015
Marion Löffler (University of Vienna, Austria): NEUTRAL AND STILL MASCULINE? AN ANALYSIS OF PARLIAMENTARY DEBATE ON AUSTRIA’S NEUTRALITY LAW
Eylul Culfaz (Madrid, Spain): OBSERVING POLITICAL MASCULINITY IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE: TURKEY AND MASCULINITY IN AKP GOVERNMENT MEMBERS’ SPEECHES
Laura Rahm (Université Paris Descartes, France) DISCOURSES OF POLITICAL MASCULINITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF ASIA´S MISSING WOMEN
Benedetta Gennaro (TU Darmstadt, Germany): POLITICAL MASCULINITIES: THE CASE OF YANNIS VAROUFAKIS
Warriors, Police, Security & Terrorism
Betul Eksi (Northeastern University, USA/MArmara University, Turkey): THE MYTH OF THE TOUGH MEN'S BURDEN: MASCULINITIES OF THE TURKISH NATIONAL POLICE
Joakim Johansson (Märlardalen University, Sweden): THE MAKING OF WARRIOR MASCULINITIES BY SWEDISH CONFEDERATION OF EMPLOYERS ACTIVISTS 1980-91
Julian Schmid (University of Vienna, Austria): IMAGINED SECURITY: HOW SUPERHEROES ENFORCE THE CONTEMPORARY SECURITY REGIME IN GLOBAL POLITICS
Rainer Emig (Mainz University, Germany): TERRORIST MASCULINITIES – FICTION, FACTS, AND MEDIATION
Personal & Political Transition
Ingólfur V. Gíslason (University of Iceland): PARENTAL LEAVE AND MASCULINITY
Daragh McDermott, Rachel Cook (Anglia Ruskin University, UK), Poul Rohleder, (University of East London): HIV AND ME: THE TRANSITION FROM DESTRUCTION TO RE-EMERGENCE OF MEN’S SEXUAL SELF-ESTEEM
Åsa Ekvall (University of Antwerp, Belgium): UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES: HOW THE TRANSITION FROM FAMILY PROVIDER TO CARING DADDY INFLUENCES ATTITUDES AND LEVELS OF VIOLENCE
Political Movements & Peacebuilding
Katarzyna Wojnicka (University of Gothenburg, Sweden): THE POLITICS OF MEN’S SOCIAL MOVEMENTS: UPDATED TYPOLOGY
Seamus Campbell (Ulster University, UK): MASCULINE VULNERABILITIES AND PEACEBUILDING